Situated at the north-eastern end of the Mediterranean basin, Cyprus (Κύπρος) is the third largest island in the region, with an area of 9,251 square kilometres (3,572 square miles). Cyprus is at the crossroads of Europe, the Middle-East, Asia and Africa, situated at a distance of 300 km north of Egypt, 90 km west of Syria and 60 km south of Turkey. The Greek mainland is located some 800 km to the west. According to the preliminary results of the 2021 Census, the population in the Government-controlled areas of Cyprus was 918,100, recording an increase of 9.2% compared to the results of the 2011 Census. The total number of foreign nationals amounts to 193,300 and corresponds to 21.1% of the total population. Its capital and largest city is Lefkosia (Λευκωσία) or Nicosia.

The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK’s control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and comprising about 60% of the island’s area, and the north, administered by the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island’s area. Another nearly 4% of the island’s area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island to be territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law and amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.

Cyprus has a long history and a rich culture that spans 11,000 years, making it one of the oldest civilisations in the Mediterranean. It also has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean, with very mild winters and hot summers. These contribute to Cyprus being a major tourist destination in Europe. With an advanced, high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone.